The Possibly Fictitious Battle of Potentiana, 379 AD

Roman soldiers of the late antique period assemble for battle at the Musée Parc Archéologique des Temps Barbares MARLE – Aisne. Photo by Jacques Maréchal (2013). Image used with permission.

Introduction

In the year 379 AD, an epic battle took place not far from the site of modern-day Budapest, Hungary. On one side was an enormous army of Romans and allied Germanic tribesmen, and on the other side was a massive horde of Huns; both sides numbered several hundred thousand men. Within the span of just a few hours, 335,000 people would lie dead on the battlefield. This immense clash, the Battle of Potentiana, was one of the biggest battles ever fought in all of world history.

Or was it?

For such a humungous conflict, it’s surprising that nobody has heard about it. Why isn’t this battle talked about more often in books, online forums, and TV shows about Roman history? Maybe it’s because it never actually happened.

The Historical Sources

The ancient and early Medieval sources make reference to many great battles fought during the last century of the Roman Empire’s existence. However, the Battle of Potentiana does not fall within that list. Neither within the writings of the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus, nor within those of the Gothic historian Jordanes, nor indeed of Zosimus, Sozomen, Procopius, or any other writer of the 4th, 5th or 6th Centuries is any mention made of any such battle known by that name or fitting that battle’s description.

In fact, our earliest-known mention of the Battle of Potentiana dates to the early Renaissance. It is found in Hungarian folklore, within the writings of a Hungarian clergyman and academic named Nicolaus Olahus (also spelled Nicolas Olaus). Born in Hermannstadt in 1493, he would eventually become Chancellor and then Archbishop of Strigonia in 1552. He is notable for writing two historical works entitled On the Origin of the Hungarians and History of Attila. Nicolaus Olahus died in 1568 (1).

Many Hungarian writers from the late Middle Ages to the nationalistic era of the 19th Century have claimed that their people have some ties of kinship with the Huns; either the Magyars are close relatives of the Huns, or they are indeed the direct descendants of the Huns, and some have even claimed that the Magyars are the offspring of Attila the Hun himself. These Hungarian writers have given us several names of ancient historical figures which do not appear anywhere else in the historic record, including the names of Hunnic chiefs who are not mentioned in any ancient Roman or Byzantine text. According to these writers, there were numerous chiefs that ruled over the Hunnic tribes during the last quarter of the 4th Century AD, such as Bela, Cheve, and Cadica. According to Nicolaus Olahus, it was during their rule that a massive battle was fought at a place called Potentiana, although modern historians doubt that there even was such a place or that a battle occurred there (2).

The 19th Century poet William Herbert, using Nicolaus Olahus’ text as a guide for his own works of fiction, provides a description of the Battle of Potentiana, which reads as follows: “Under them [Bela, Cheve, and Cadica] was said to have been fought a great battle at a place called Potentiana, which from its circumstances seems referable to the period when the Huns first occupied Pannonia, seven or eight years before the death of Balamer [which would place the battle in either 378 or 379 AD]. Bela, Cheve, and Cadica, pitched their camp upon the Teiss. Maternus, being at that time praefect of Pannonia, administered the affairs of Dalmatia, Mysia, Achaea, Thrace, and Macedonia. He solicited the aid of Detricus, who then ruled over part of Germany, and having collected a great miscellaneous force to resist the common enemy, they encamped at Zaazhalon in Pannonia, not far from the southern bank of the Danube, and remained posted near Potentiana and Thethis. The Huns crossed the Danube below the site of Buda, surprised the allied army at night, and routed them with great slaughter, and encamped in the vale of Tharnok. There the Huns were attacked in their turn, when the allies had rallied their scattered forces, and after a severe contest the Huns were compelled in the evening to recross the Danube and return to their former position, but the victorious army was too weakened to pursue them, and, fearful of a fresh attack, returned to Tulna, a town of Austria in the neighborhood of Vienna” (3).

Nicolaus Olahus states that the Huns lost 125,000 men, including Chief Cheve, and that the Roman-German force lost 210,000 men (4). Abraham Bakschay states in Chronology of the Kings of Hungary that the Huns attacked and defeated the Romans at Tulna, which might be a variant of the name Tárnok. In Bakschay’s version of the story, the Roman commander Prefect Maternus was killed and his Germanic ally Chief Detricus was wounded. However, the cost for the Huns was very high: 40,000 dead, including the three chiefs Bela, Cheve, and Cadica (5). This is a far cry from the outlandish statistics given by Nicolaus Olahus of the Huns losing 125,000 men.

Three Problems: Dates, Places, and Names

Nicolaus Olahus’ account of the Battle of Potentiana raises eyebrows in many respects. Firstly is the issue that, for such a massive fight in terms of the number of people involved and the number of casualties suffered, the Battle of Potentiana is not mentioned anywhere in the primary sources. Ancient Greco-Roman geographers never mention any settlement by the name of Potentiana, nor is any mention of a battle matching the above description given in any contemporary or near-contemporary sources. In fact, nobody makes any mention of a battle matching the description given by Nicolaus Olahus in any respect, be it name, geographic location, date, or the forces involved. The closest parallel to it would be the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, also known as the Battle of Chalons, which was fought in 451 AD, but I’ll get into this later.

The second major issue is the description of the battle’s geographic location. Little information is given about the battle’s placement, but the few details that are given are rather suspect. The place-names which have been recorded have proven quite difficult to place on a map. The early 18th Century historian Gregorius Hidius describes Potentiana as being close to Budapest, and another writer named Hoffman claims that it was just two miles away from that city (6). According to C. A. Macartney and László Péter, Potentiana is apparently the Roman name for the town of Százhalom or another Danube settlement that was located close to it (7), but I have not been able to find any other sources to back this claim up. Other places which are mentioned in this tale such as Zaazhalon and Thethis do not appear elsewhere in any text that I have seen. The so-called “Vale of Tharnok” is now known as the Tárnok Valley. The village of Tárnok is located about twelve miles southwest of Budapest, and the battle supposedly took place at or near Budapest. Could the Tárnok Valley be the location for a large battle that is now lost in the historical records? We’ll probably never know, but I find it highly unlikely. In ancient Roman times, Budapest was the ancient Roman city of Aquincum, and any large battle fought at or near this city during the 4th Century AD would certainly have grabbed the Romans’ attention. The fact that ALL of the ancient records are mute on this subject makes me have doubts that any battle matching Nicolaus Olahus’ description took place there during that time.

One explanation of the name “Potentiana” which was proposed by the Hungarian historian Sándor Eckhart (also spelled Eckhardt) is that it is a mis-interpretation of a Latin quote from Paulinus Minorita, a Catholic bishop and writer from the city of Venice born around 1274 and dying in 1344. Among Paulinus’ writings are the Historiarum Epitoma, the Compendium (also known as the Chronologia Magna) and the Historia Satyrica (8). Paulinus Minorita states in one of his writings that Attila was in potentia crevit, meaning “had grown powerful” (9). It’s possible that someone copying this manuscript mistakenly wrote down the name Potentiana rather than potentia, but this would not make much sense linguistically.

The name of a city called Potentiana appears three times in Medieval Hungarian manuscripts, and it would appear that several of these were used by Paulinus Minorita in his writings. Most of these manuscripts do not have a title and they do not record the author’s name, and so modern-day literary scholars use code letters to designate one manuscript from another, such as K, M, P, T, X, and so forth (10). One of these Hungarian manuscripts, code-lettered as “X”, states the following: Ditrico ergo anmo gratanti annuente egressus cum exercitu Italico, Germanico ac caeteris mixtis gentibus occidentis pervenit (in Zazholm, uni ipsi Langobardi convenerant) ad Potentianum civitatem (11). According to C. A. Macartney and László Péter, “This passage really covers the whole of Attila’s campaigns in the West. It is therefore much more likely that ‘Potentiana’ is a misreading of some town mentioned in connection with those campaigns, than a reminiscence of some totally different event. The town which fits the bill historically is, of course, Orleans (Aureliani), the difference between which name, in a medieval MS. full of abbreviations, and that of Potentiana is not so large as it is in modern print; but the name might also be that of some other city connected with Attila through the legend of some Saint” (12).

Apparently, there was a town called Potentianum, but it wasn’t located in Hungary. The modern-day town of Podenzano (also known as Pollenzanum or Pudinsàn), located in the Aemilia-Romania region of Italy, is stated to have formerly been known as Potentianum (13). The modern town of Podenzano is located very close to Lombard territory, which will be worthy of note later in this section.

The third major issue with Nicolaus Olahus’ account are the names which are given of the people involved. The three Hunnic chiefs Bela, Cheve, and Cadica are not given in any contemporaneous source. Indeed, we know very few historical Hunnic leaders by name. Naturally, Attila is the one that everyone knows of, but only people who have extensively studied the Huns and Late Antique history will likely know the names of any others, and the list of known names is itself not all that long. Many of the names of other Huns which are given in chronologies of Hunnic rulers are actually the fictional products of Hungarian folklore.

What about the Roman commander, Prefect Maternus of Pannonia? At this time, the Roman Empire had been split into western and eastern halves, with the western capital being shuffled around Italy every few years but the eastern capital remained Constantinople. Both of these empires were further subdivided into vast territories known as the “praetorian prefectures”. There were a total of four of these throughout the Roman world, and the men who ruled them, the prefects, were extremely powerful – they were second only to the emperor in terms of the amount of authority that they exercised. These prefectures were further divided into provinces administered by a governor or “vicar”. However, the historical records state very clearly that there was never a “prefecture of Pannonia” or a prefect ruling over it. The prefectures consisted of Gaul, Italy, Illyricum, and the East. Of these, “Illyricum” is the closest in accuracy to Pannonia, because Pannonia was a geographic region within this prefecture. Moreover, Pannonia itself was divided into four provinces with each run by its own governor. Mistakenly writing down “Prefect of Pannonia” instead of “Prefect of Illyricum” might be forgiven as a simple error of judgement. However, there never was any such person named Maternus who ruled the Praetorian Prefecture of Illyricum during the late 300s AD. There are three possible candidates, and none of them have a name that bears any similarity to Maternus. One possible analog for Prefect Maternus was Claudius Mamertinus, who served as the prefect of Illyricum from 362-365 AD (14), but the names of the three people who administered that region afterwards during the 370s (Sextus Probus, Quintus Olybrius, and Vettius Praetextus) do not bear any similarity to the name “Maternus”. What if Maternus was actually a provincial governor instead of a prefect? Again, the names don’t match. The only one that is vaguely similar is Governor Mesala of Pannonia Secunda who administered that province in 373 AD. As for Maternus being some kind of military commander, the office he likely would have held would be “Commander of the Armies of Illyricum”. However, the man who held this post during this time was named Theodosius, who served as the commanding general of Illyricum’s troops from 376-379 AD.

As for Maternus’ co-commander Detricus the German, he might be a legendary figure as well. The name “Detricus” is a Latinized version of the Germanic names “Dietrich” or “Theodoric”. In the Hungarian Annals, written by a Hungarian Jesuit named György Pray, Detricus is described as “Dietrich von Bern”(15). Bern is one of the Swiss cantons, and during the 4th Century, this region was under the influence, if not the direct control, of the Alemannic Confederacy. Therefore, it can be inferred that this person was either one chief among the Alemanni or was the paramount ruler of the confederacy at the time. The problem is that the Roman historical sources do not make any mention of a man by this name or a name sounding similar to it ruling over the Alemannic Confederacy as a whole or any of its constituent tribes during this time, or any time reasonably prior to or after this supposed battle (16). But there might be another possibility. “Dietrich von Bern” is also the name given to a figure in German legend and folklore that is based upon the Ostrogoth ruler King Theodoric the Great. In this case, “Bern” doesn’t refer to the Swiss canton, but instead is a Germanized version of the Italian name Verona (17). However, the real King Theodoric had his capital at Ravenna, not Verona. It was, in fact, a neighboring tribe called the Lombards who controlled Verona (18). So could Detricus be Lombardic? No, because the Lombards didn’t invade and conquer northern Italy until the middle 500s AD, nearly 200 years after the Battle of Potentiana supposedly took place. So who Detricus was, if he was in fact a real person, is anybody’s guess. Personally, I believe that the character of Chief Dietrich of Verona is a fictional construct, a fusion of Visigoth and Ostrogoth, being given a Visigoth name and a Lombard nationality, because the Visigoths and the Lombards were the two major Germanic groups which were associated with invading northern Italy during the last hundred years of the Roman Empire’s existence.

Historical Interpretation

Historically, no mention is made of any massive battle fought at a place called Potentiana, or any location at or near Budapest (where the battle supposedly took place), in 379 AD. Geographically, the story of the Battle of Potentiana doesn’t make any sense either. In terms of the names of the people involved, they are almost surely products of the author’s imagination. However, is there any historical basis at all for any of the events which are described in Nicolaus Olahus’ account? Perhaps.

The battle itself may have been fictitious, but it appears to have been based upon several real battles which took place during the 300s and 400s AD. The first example is the Battle of Argentovaria, fought in May of 378 AD. On this day, the Western Roman Army won a victory over the Alemanni at the town of Argentovaria, located near either the modern-day town of Colmar, France or the town of Neuf-Brisach, France. The sole source for this battle is Ammianus Marcellinus. The Alemanni force numbered nearly 40,000 men, but the number of Romans is not given. The Roman army was officially under the command of Emperor Gratian, but in reality, it was under the command of Gen. Nannienus and his second-in-command Gen. Mallobaudes (also named Merobaudes; a Frank by birth). The Alemanni were defeated, and their leader Chief Priarius was killed during the battle.

Another important inspiration for the Battle of Potentiana may have been the Battle of Hadrianopolis, also called the Battle of Adrianople, fought on August 9, 378 AD. On that hot dusty summer day, troops of the Eastern Roman Army, led in person by Emperor Valens, faced down a large force of Goths led by their warlord Fritigern. The Romans suffered a crushing defeat, losing perhaps two-thirds of their men, and Emperor Valens himself was killed. The Battle of Hadrianopolis is often touted by both ancient historians and military historians as one of the Romans’ worst defeats and also regard it as being a landmark event in Roman history.

With the Romans given a severe beating at Hadrianopolis, the Danube frontiers were substantially weakened. It is believed that the Huns, in conjunction with Ostrogoths, launched their first raids across the Danube into Roman territory either in late 378 shortly after the Romans’ defeat at Hadrianopolis or perhaps in early 379 AD. These attacks were repelled by a Roman officer named Majorianus, the commander of the Roman troops stationed in the province of Pannonia Valeria, operating from his headquarters in Aquincum (19). News of this victory was announced in Constantinople on November 17, 379 AD. In reward for this victory, Majorianus was promoted to being the commander of all Roman troops throughout Illyria (20). In 458 AD, Sidonius Apollinaris wrote a poem “Panegyric on Maiorian” in which he referred to this event.

The Eastern Roman Empire, now led by Emperor Theodosius I, repeatedly asked for aid from his colleague Emperor Gratian of the West in terms of providing reinforcements to fight the Goths. However, Gratian could provide only minimal assistance, or none at all, because he was too busy defending the Rhine border from attacks by the Alemannic Confederacy. The Romans’ inability to defeat the Goths or at least hold them at bay led to open resentment of the imperial governments. Consequently in 383 AD, a coup was launched and Emperor Gratian was deposed from the throne, and shortly afterwards, he was murdered on the orders of Gen. Magnus Maximus, Commander of the Armies of Britannia. He quickly claimed the throne, established control over nearly all of Gaul, and was marshalling his forces in southern Gaul in preparation for an invasion of Italy. Defending the Roman homeland against this rebel army was General Bauto, a Frank by birth, who had risen to be one of the top military commanders in the Western Roman Army. Although he was an able commander, the number of troops that he commanded was far fewer than Maximus’. Bauto appealed to the Eastern Roman Empire to send reinforcements, but so far he had not received any word that any help was coming. All he could do for the moment was to position his troops along the Gaul-Italy border as a defensive force to block or at least delay Maximus’ army from pressing further into Italy. Unfortunately, Maximus out-maneuvered Bauto by persuading the Juthungi, a Germanic tribe which lived in what’s now southern Germany, to raid into the Roman territories of Noricum and Rhaetia, which threatened Bauto’s rear. In the Summer of 383, the Juthungi launched their attacks. However, Bauto didn’t take the bait – he and his troops maintained their defensive positions along the border. Italy had been spared the bloodshed of civil war, but the provinces which lay north of Italy had been damaged by barbarian attacks. The following year in January 384 AD, the Juthungi were preparing to launch another series of raids. General Bauto probably realized by now that reinforcements from the Eastern Roman Empire were not coming, so he appealed to the Huns and the Alans to provide help. In Spring of 384 AD, Hunnic and Alanic horsemen, acting as mercenaries in Gen. Bauto’s service, arrived in Noricum and Rhaetia to protect those places against Juthungi attacks. However, it appears as though the Huns and Alans were successful – the Juthungi were defeated and were forced to retreat across the border back to their homelands, and the northern provinces of the Western Roman Empire were spared further devastation. Unfortunately for General Bauto, the Huns and their Alan companions did not return back to their own lands. Instead, they kept pressing further westwards towards Gaul. General Bauto could not risk a battle against them, for he would likely suffer significant casualties and he needed every one of his men to fight against Maximus’ rebel army, which had been daily threatening to invade Italy for several months. Instead, Bauto bribed the Huns and Alans with a large quantity of gold to turn around and head back to their homelands (21).

Perhaps the name “Potentiana” is being confused with the Battle of Poetovio, fought in the western Balkans in the year 388 AD (22). On this day, an Eastern Roman army under the command of Emperor Theodosius I clashed with a Western Roman army under the command of Marcellinus, the brother of Gen. Magnus Maximus who served as the Western Roman Empire’s military dictator. Theodosius’ army was made up mostly of a motley collection of barbarian allies who had pledged service to him, including Goths, Alans, and Huns. After advancing westwards from Thessalonika, Theodosius’ army clashed with General Maximus’ forces for the first time at the city of Siscia; Maximus was defeated and retreated, with the emperor in pursuit. The second battle took place near the town of Poetovio (modern-day Ptuj, Slovenia), and it was a long and bitter fight. “The enemy…fought with the desperation of gladiators. They did not yield an inch, but stood their ground and fell” (23). Even so, Marcellinus and his troops were defeated, and the few who fought on Marcellinus’ side who survived the battle quickly pledged their loyalties to the emperor. Not long afterwards, the town of Emona (modern-day Ljubljana, Slovenia), which is located seventy-one miles southwest of Poetovio, opened its gates the Theodosius and his army (24). General Maximus himself was taken prisoner at Aquileia on August 28, 388 AD, and was soon afterwards beheaded (25).

There was another battle at a place called Potentia or Pollentia, located in northwestern Italy not far from the city of Turin, in which Gen. Flavius Stilicho defeated King Alaric and his Visigoths on Easter Sunday, April 6, 402 AD. Claudian, the court poet of Emperor Honorius, composed a poem entitled “The Gothic War” in honor of Stilicho’s victory.

Finally, perhaps the battle which has provided the greatest inspiration for the tale of the Battle of Potentiana was the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, known more commonly (though in the opinion of John Man and myself, incorrectly) as the Battle of Chalons (26). It was fought on June 20, 451 AD in eastern France, a certain distance from the city of Troyes, and it was one of the largest battles ever fought in ancient history. On one side stood Attila the Hun, leading an army of Huns, Ostrogoths, pro-Hunnic Burgundians, Germans, and Gepids, and on the other side stood an alliance of Romans, Visigoths, Alans, pro-Roman Burgundians, and Armorican Celts. The entire story of this epic clash is told in the writings of the Gothic historian Jordanes. By the end of this battle, Attila was defeated and was forced to retreat back to the Rhine. Perhaps as many as 300,000 dead carpeted the plains. Cadavera vero innumera, records the Gallic Chronicle in its summation of that battle’s death toll – “the bodies were truly countless”.

Conclusion

The Battle of Potentiana, which appears in writing for the first time during the 1500s, appears to be a conflation of numerous historical battles which occurred over the span of several decades during the 4th and 5th Centuries AD, combining them into a single epic event. Indeed, the tale is very worthy of fiction, but it’s not history.

Source citations:

  1. Joseph Thomas, Universal Pronouncing Dictionary of Biography and Mythology, Volume 2, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1905. Page 1,848.
  2. William Herbert, “Attila and his Predecessors: An Historical Treatise”. In Attila, King of the Huns. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1838. Pages 307-308.
  3. William Herbert, “Attila and his Predecessors: An Historical Treatise”. In Attila, King of the Huns. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1838. Pages 307-309.
  4. William Herbert, “Attila and his Predecessors: An Historical Treatise”. In Attila, King of the Huns. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1838. Page 309.
  5. William Herbert, “Attila and his Predecessors: An Historical Treatise”. In Attila, King of the Huns. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1838. Page 309.
  6. William Herbert, “Attila and his Predecessors: An Historical Treatise”. In Attila, King of the Huns. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1838. Pages 307-308.
  7. C. A. Macartney and László Péter, eds., Studies on Early Hungarian and Pontic History. Abingdon: Routledge, 2019. Page is not given.
  8. Encyclopedia.com. “Paulinus of Venice”. https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/paulinus-venice.
  9. C. A. Macartney and László Péter, eds., Studies on Early Hungarian and Pontic History. Abingdon: Routledge, 2019. Page is not given.
  10. C. A. Macartney and László Péter, eds., Studies on Early Hungarian and Pontic History. Abingdon: Routledge, 2019. Page is not given.
  11. C. A. Macartney and László Péter, eds., Studies on Early Hungarian and Pontic History. Abingdon: Routledge, 2019. Page is not given.
  12. C. A. Macartney and László Péter, eds., Studies on Early Hungarian and Pontic History. Abingdon: Routledge, 2019. Page is not given.
  13. Wikideck. “Potentianum”. https://wp-la.wikideck.com/Potentianum.
  14. John B. Bury (1886), “The Praetorian Prefects and the Divisions of the Roman Empire in the Fourth Century, A.D.” Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Volume II (1879-1888). (December 13, 1886). Pages 492-493.
  15. William Herbert, “Attila and his Predecessors: An Historical Treatise”. In Attila, King of the Huns. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1838. Pages 307-308.
  16. The History Files. “Alemanni (Suevi)”. https://www.historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsEurope/GermanySwabia.htm.
  17. Encyclopedia Britannica. “Dietrich von Bern”. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Dietrich-von-Bern.
  18. Encyclopedia Britannica. “Dietrich von Bern”. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Dietrich-von-Bern.
  19. Hrvoje Gračanin (2006), “The Huns and South Pannonia”. Byzantinoslavica, volume LXIV. Page 31.
  20. Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen, The World of the Huns: Studies in their History and Culture. Berkeley: University Press, 1973. Page 34; Thomas S. Burns, Barbarians Within the Gates of Rome: A Study of Roman Military Policy and the Barbarians, Ca. 375-425 A.D. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994. Page 62.
  21. Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen, The World of the Huns: Studies in their History and Culture. Berkeley: University Press, 1973. Pages 41-44; E. A. Thompson, The Huns. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 1996. Page 36.
  22. E. A. Thompson, The Huns. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 1996. Page 36.
  23. Stephen Williams and Gerard Friell, Theodosius: The Empire at Bay. London: B.T. Batsford, Ltd., 1994. Page 51.
  24. Stephen Williams and Gerard Friell, Theodosius: The Empire at Bay. London: B.T. Batsford, Ltd., 1994. Page 51; Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen, The World of the Huns: Studies in their History and Culture. Berkeley: University Press, 1973. Pages 44-45.
  25. Thomas S. Burns, Barbarians within the Gates of Rome. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994. Page 98.
  26. John Man, Attila: The Barbarian King who Challenged Rome. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2006. Pages 227, 232.

Bibliography:

Books:

  • Burns, Thomas S. Barbarians within the Gates of Rome: A Study of Roman Military Policy and the Barbarians, ca. 375-425 A.D. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1994.
  • Macartney, C. A.; Péter, László, eds. Studies on Early Hungarian and Pontic History. Abingdon: Routledge, 2019. Originally published in 1999.
  • Maenchen-Helfen, Otto J. The World of the Huns: Studies in their History and Culture. Berkeley: University Press, 1973.
  • Man, John. Attila: The Barbarian King who Challenged Rome. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2006.
  • Thomas, Joseph. Universal Pronouncing Dictionary of Biography and Mythology, Volume 2, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1905.
  • Thompson, E. A. The Huns. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 1996.
  • Williams, Stephen; Friell, Gerard. Theodosius: The Empire at Bay. London: B.T. Batsford, Ltd., 1994.

Articles:

  • Bury, John B. (1886). “The Praetorian Prefects and the Divisions of the Roman Empire in the Fourth Century, A.D.” Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Volume II (1879-1888). (December 13, 1886). Pages 490-516.
  • Gračanin, Hrvoje (2006). “The Huns and South Pannonia”. Byzantinoslavica, volume LXIV. Pages 29-76.
  • Herbert, William. “Attila and his Predecessors: An Historical Treatise”. In Attila, King of the Huns. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1838.

Websites:



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